|"We Discovered Ellen White Failed the Biblical Tests of a Prophet"|
for Real People
Oysters and Herrings
Did Mrs. White Practice what she Preached on Diet?
By Max Chugg and Dirk Anderson
Mrs. White emphasized that eating meat would destroy not only physical health, but also spiritual life:
"Is it not time that all should aim to dispense with flesh foods? How can those who are seeking to become pure, refined, and holy, that they may have the companionship of heavenly angels, continue to use as food anything that has so harmful an effect on soul and body?"3Mrs. White said eating meat had a "harmful" effect upon the "soul". As you read on, you will discover that all the while Mrs. White was the prophetess of the Adventist church, she was secretly "harming her soul" by eating meat.
In 1869 Mrs. White wrote:
"I have not changed my course a particle since I adopted the health reform. I have not taken one step back since the light from heaven upon this subject first shone upon my pathway. I broke away from everything at once, from meat and butter, and from three meals. ....I left off those things from principle. I took my stand on health reform from principle."4Mrs. White said she had "not taken one step back". Is that the honest truth? Let us examine the evidence to see just how many steps back she really took...
Mrs. White claimed to have taken her vegetarian stand prior to 1869, yet four years later we find her eating deer and duck on a trip in the mountains of Colorado:
"Our provisions have been very low for some days. Many of our supplies have gone. . . . We expected supplies three days ago certainly, but none has come. Willie went to the lake for water. We heard his gun and found he had shot two ducks. This is really a blessing, for we need something to live upon."5Here we find Willie going down to the lake for water. It seems a little odd that he would be toting a rifle with him on his trip to fetch water. Perhaps he planned to fetch more than just water. Willie returned with two dead ducks. From this we can gather that it is okay to let the health reform principles slide a little when supplies are short. Here is another quote from the same trip:
"A young man from Nova Scotia had come in from hunting. He had a quarter of deer. He had traveled 20 miles with this deer upon his back. ... He gave us a small piece of the meat, which we made into broth. Willie shot a duck which came in a time of need, for our supplies were rapidly diminishing."6What happened to the stand she had made upon principle? Apparently there are exceptions to her health rules, at least for herself. Even though Mrs. White deplored the "laxness" of others when it came to obeying her health reforms, she broke the rules herself:
"I was at times placed where I was compelled to eat a little meat... When I could not obtain the food I needed, I have sometimes eaten a little meat..."7
Getting ill always provided a convenient excuse to partake of some forbidden item of food. Once while seasick on a boat trip, Mrs. White slurped down some beef stew:
"I remained on deck until dark, and then went into the cabin, where the pitching of the boat made me very sick. This was on Monday, and I was unable to sit up from that time until Thursday morning, taking but once during that time a little beef tea and cracker."8
"I suppose you will be interested to know how we spent Christmas... Christmas morning we all took breakfast together--James Cornell; Florence and Clara, their two girls; Brother and Sister Moore and their three children; Sister Bahler and Etta, a girl living with them; and Sister Daniells, our cook, Father, and myself. We had a quarter of venison cooked, and stuffing. It was as tender as a chicken. We all enjoyed it very much. There is plenty of venison in market."10
Mrs. White had still not given up eating meat by 1880. The following is an excerpt from a letter she wrote to her sister Elizabeth while traveling:
"Thursday morning we arose from our births refreshed with sleep. At eight o'clock we took a portion of the pressed chicken food liberally furnished us by the matron of the sanitarium, put the same in a two-quart pail, and placed it on the stove, and thus we had good hot chicken broth and enjoyed our breakfast. The morning was very cold and this hot dish was very palatable. ... We have plenty of room, good food and plenty of it. Sister McComber scalded up the chicken. Will scald the meat tomorrow morning."11There appears to have been ample food available at the Sanitarium, yet Sister White ate chicken that was furnished by the Matron of the Sanitarium. Then she took the pressed chicken with her on her trip and ate it in the train for breakfast: "We again made a nice hot broth of our pressed chicken."12
Certainly Mrs. White could have planned a vegetarian diet for this trip. This was her fifteenth trip on this route so she knew exactly what to expect. Yet while she indulged in meals of chicken, she advised Adventists contemplating this journey to "Take your lunch baskets with you, well filled with fruits and plainly cooked bread".13 No, they were not permitted to violate the health reform principles and enjoy a little "palatable" chicken. They must follow the health reform and subsist on bread and fruit!
Mrs. White was still privately eating unclean meat a full 13 years after her public commitment! In this 1882 excerpt from a letter to her daughter-in-law, Mary Kelsey White, she expresses her fondness for herring and oysters:
Mary, if you can get me a good box of herrings - fresh ones - please do so. These last ones that Willie got are bitter and old. If you can buy cans, say (a) half dozen cans of good tomatoes, please do so. We shall need them. If you can get a few cans of good oysters, get them.14This letter gives credence to Fannie Bolton's claim that Ellen White was discovered in a restaurant "very gratified in eating big white raw oysters with vinegar, pepper and salt".15
Some find it difficult to believe that Sister White actually ate oysters because her testimonies tell Adventists they should refuse to eat them:
His stronghold seems to be giving way; his hitherto brave heart is growing weak. He is invited to accompany them for a walk, and they lead him to a saloon. Oysters or other refreshments are called for, and he is ashamed to draw away and refuse the treat.16
According to Dr. John Kellogg, Mrs. White celebrated her return from Europe in 1887 with "a large baked fish." When she visited the Battle Creek Sanitarium during the next several years, she "always called for meat and usually fried chicken," much to the consternation of Kellogg and the cook who were both vegetarians.17
At the various camp meetings she attended, her lax dietary habits became common knowledge, thanks in no small part to her own children. Kellogg recalled once hearing Edson (J.E.) White standing in front of his mother's tent calling out to a meat wagon that regularly visited the grounds:
"Say, hello there! Have you any fresh fish?"Years after his mother's death Willie White told of his mother's difficulty in giving up meat. He described the difficulty in finding vegetarian cooks, and of lunch baskets filled with turkey, chicken, and tinned tongue.19
"What kinds of edibles command the highest price in the market? Those that stimulate this passion, and because they create impure desires. What mean those oyster stews, and crab parties, and terrapin soups, and squab suppers, wild fowls, cloves, and a host of other like things? Eaten, in many instances in high (?low) life, expressly to beget unhallowed desires! Oh! shame, where is thy blush! Do you want more proof? Behold the fertile South. But particulars are too revolting, both as regards the beastly indulgence of whites with blacks, and the number of rakes [immoral men] and harlots among the latter! Our world is literally FULL of sensuality!"21
James blasted those who ate oysters because of their supposed power to stimulate "sensual desires." Yet surprisingly, his own wife fostered a love for these forbidden, unclean creatures. In 1907, Adventist physician Dr. Charles Stewart wrote a letter to Mrs. White questioning why she ate oysters:
"Three parties, all Seventh-day Adventists, two of them officially connected with the denomination, state for a number of years after you received the light on health reform, that you ate meat and oysters. Two of these persons within the past ninety days told me personally that you ate oysters in their own home, on one occasion as late as 1890. Another stated that he saw you eating oysters in a restaurant.Mrs. White never responded to Dr. Stewart's letter, nor did she deny the statements of the two men who saw her eating oysters.
It was not until 1894 that Mrs. White finally gave up meat eating at the insistence of a Catholic woman!
"I have a large family, which often numbers sixteen. In it there are men who work at the plough, and who fell trees. These have most vigorous exercise, but not a particle of the flesh of animals on our table. Meat has not been used by us since the Brighton (Australia) Campmeeting (January, 1894). It was not my purpose to have it on my table at any time, but urgent pleas were made that such a one was unable to eat this or that, and that his stomach could take care of meat better than it could anything else. Thus I was enticed to place it on my table. The use of cheese also began to creep in, because some like cheese; but I soon controlled that. But when the selfishness of taking the lives of animals to gratify a perverted taste was presented to me by a Catholic woman, kneeling at my feet, I felt ashamed and distressed. I saw it in a new light, and I said, I will no longer patronize the butchers. I will not have the flesh of corpses on my table."23Apparently her heavenly communications with angels were not enough to convince Mrs. White to give up meat. It took a Catholic woman begging her to give up meat on the basis that it was wrong to take the lives of animals! It makes one wonder how much confidence she had in her own visions!
In 1896 Ellen White writes a letter indicating that 25 years after the angels told her it was wrong to eat meat, she finally came to the same conclusion. So what did she do? She switched over to eating fish!
"Two years ago  I came to the conclusion that there was danger in using the flesh of dead animals, and since then I have not used meat at all. It is never placed on my table. I use fish when I can get it. We can get beautiful fish from the saltwater lake near here. I use neither tea nor coffee. As I labor against these things, I cannot but practice that which I know to be best for health, and my family are all in perfect harmony with me. You see, my dear niece, that I am telling you matters just as they are."24
We noted at the top of this page that Mrs. White said she gave up eating butter in 1869. In a letter to her son written May 25, 1869, Mrs. White encourages Edson to follow her "strict" example in giving up meat and butter:
"We have in diet been strict to follow the light the Lord has given us. You are acquainted with that light, and we trust you will have the fear of the Lord continually before you and will respect the light He has given and be no less strict than we have been. We have advised you not to eat butter or meat. We have not had it on our table. ... All know that we do not put butter on our table. If they see you, our son, eat the things we have condemned, you weaken our influence and lower yourself in their estimation."25She further stated in 1870:
"No butter or flesh-meats of any kind come on my table."26In 1872 she bore positive testimony against it:
"We bear positive testimony against...butter..."27In 1874, she wrote the following to her son Willie:
"Your father and I have dropped milk, cream, butter, sugar, and meat entirely since we came to California."28But did she really drop it "entirely"? In 1895 she mentions that she uses butter "for cooking purposes":
"We purchase butter for cooking purposes from dairies where the cows are in healthy condition, and have good pasture."29By 1901 it seems that God had changed His mind on butter, because Sister White sent out a testimony taking butter off the banned list:
"When the time comes that it is no longer safe to use milk, cream, butter, and eggs, God will reveal this... No extremes in health reform are to be advocated. The question of using milk and butter and eggs will work out its own problem. At present we have no burden on this line."30Perhaps that time came in 1903--34 years after she supposedly received instruction to stop eating butter--because Mrs. White claimed she had finally stopped eating butter:
"As for myself, I have settled the butter question. I do not use it."31Despite that claim, it appears she was eating butter again the very next year in 1904. E.S. Ballenger, a former SDA minister, wrote of Mrs. White contradicting her 1872 testimony against butter:
"Mrs. White did not follow her own testimonies. She ate butter at my table 32 years after giving this definite instruction..."32Seventh-day Adventist president A.G. Daniels, who knew Mrs. White for over 40 years, stated in 1919:
"I have eaten pounds of butter at her table myself, and dozens of eggs. I could not explain that in her own family if I believe that she believed those were the Lord's own words to the world."33
After reviewing this evidence it is now painfully obvious Mrs. White failed to follow the very health principles that she claimed to have received from God and insisted others follow. Her health practices were clearly not in line with her health teachings. She either chose to disobey the instruction of God, or perhaps she did not follow her testimonies because they did not come from God at all, but from the writings of other health reformers.
There can be no doubt Mrs. White claimed her insight on meat came straight from her "visions":
"It was at the house of Brother A. Hilliard, at Otsego, Michigan, June 6, 1863, that the great subject of health reform was opened before me in vision."34
The following statements leave no doubt about her stance on meat-eating:
"I do not preach one thing and practice another. I do not present to my hearers rules of life for them to follow while I make an exception in my own case..."35Mrs. White even went so far as to condemn those who ate meat as being unfit for God's service:
"No man should be set apart as a teacher of the people while his own teaching or example contradicts the testimony God has given His servants to bear in regard to diet . . . His disregard of health reform unfits him to stand as the Lord's messenger..."37Jesus had something to say about hypocrites who placed burdensome requirements on others while not obeying those requirements themselves:
For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers.38In the Didache, an early Christian document believed to have been written around the first century A.D., the author advises early Christians on how to identify a false prophet:
If any prophet teaches the truth, yet does not practice what he teaches, he is a false prophet.39
"Let not any of our ministers set an evil example in the eating of flesh-meat. Let them and their families live up to the light of health reform. Let not our ministers animalize their own nature and the nature of their children."40
"If ever there was a time when the diet should be of the most simple kind, it is now. Meat should not be placed before our children. Its influence is to excite and strengthen the lower passions, and has a tendency to deaden the moral powers. Grains and fruits prepared free from grease, and in as natural a condition as possible, should be the food for the tables of all who claim to be preparing for translation to heaven.""41
"You should be teaching your children. You should be instructing them how to shun the vices and corruption's of this age. Instead of this, many are studying how to get something good to eat. You place upon your tables butter, eggs, and meat and then your children partake of them. They are fed with the very things that will excite their animal passions, and then you come to meeting and ask God to bless and save your children. How high do your prayers go?"42
"Those who have received instruction regarding the evils of the use of flesh foods...will not continue to indulge their appetite for food that they know to be unhealthful. God demands that the appetites be cleansed, and that self-denial be practiced in regard to those things which are not good. This is a work that will have to be done before His people can stand before Him a perfected people."43
In an article at entitled, Ellen White and Vegetarianism: Did She Practice What She Preached, Roger Coon uses a letter from Elder George Starr to attack the character and credibility of Fannie Bolton and refute her claims that she saw Mrs White eating oysters in a restaurant and beefsteak in a carriage by charging (1) she lied, and (2) she was insane.
Is Fannie Bolton a reliable witness?
Roger Coon writes:
When W. C. White learned of the 1914 letter of Fannie Bolton, he secured a copy of it and sent it to Elder Starr for comment. Starr replied:AnswerI can only say that I regard it as the most absurdly, untruthful lot of rubbish that I have ever seen or read regarding our dear Sister White.
(1) A liar? Coon omitted an important part of Starr's letter. In the above quote, notice the ellipses highlighted in yellow. Here is the missing part:
Of course you will know how true the story of the 'bloody beefsteak' spread on a brown paper, and carried into the tourist car and cooked by Miss McEnterfer, is. I do not believe that either. I think this entire letter was written by Fannie in one of her most insane moments.45Starr alleges that the "bloody beefsteak" was a lie cooked up by Ms. Bolton. However, Willie White later admitted purchasing the beefsteak.46 So, Coon removes that part of Starr's letter with ellipses. Why? Because it shows that Fannie Bolton's story was reliable, even though Starr considered it a lie.
In Fannie Bolton's letter, she first describes the oyster incident, and then immediately describes the "bloody beefsteak" incident. So, apparently Coon wants us to believe she was an "insane liar" about the oysters in one sentence, and then suddenly started telling the truth in the next sentence regarding the beefsteak.
Is it so unbelievable that Sister White ate oysters? Both Starr and W.C. White insisted the oyster story was fabricated, and yet the White Estate admits, "THERE IS HOWEVER, EVIDENCE THAT AT ONE POINT IN HER LIFE MRS. WHITE MOST LIKELY ATE SOME OYSTERS."47 We also know that Ellen White used vinegar during this time. We may never know for certain whether or not Fannie Bolton was telling the truth, but there are two reasons in favor of her story:
(2) Insane? It is beyond the scope of this document to prove or disprove Ms. Bolton's sanity, but let it suffice to say that during her time with the prophetess, Fannie Bolton certainly saw some things that caused her great consternation and were very troubling to her belief system. Regardless, this "insane" lady was once described by Mrs. White as, "a treasure to me."48 Ms. Bolton assembled Adventism's most-widely-read book, Steps to Christ. That seems like quite an accomplishment for an "insane" person! Perhaps this is why Adventism is loathe to admit that Fannie Bolton, not Ellen White, put Steps to Christ together.
For more info on Fannie Bolton, click here.
Forced to eat meat by poverty?
In the same booklet, Roger Coon makes this excuse for the Whites eating meat:
When the Whites traveled, they were largely dependent upon the hospitality of fellow church members. These people were usually poor, their diet consisting almost entirely of flesh food. Fruits and vegetables, even when available, could be had only seasonally.49
Perhaps during the first 10 - 15 years of their marriage the Whites dealt with poverty, but by the time the health reform vision arrived, the days of poverty had passed. Ellen White was not one of those Seventh-day Adventists for whom vegetarianism was made difficult by poverty. She travelled regularly, mostly in first class when travel for most was an unaffordable luxury, and her travelling companions included a personal nurse, and, as Coon admits, a cook. If she could afford these expenses, then certainly she could afford obtaining vegetarian food! (For more information on Ellen White's wealth, click here)
Forced to eat meat in "remote" areas?
In the same booklet, Roger Coon makes this excuse:
There were also times when one or both of the Whites spent time in isolated and remote geographical regions, such as the mountains of Colorado, where one had to “live off the land”; they had to learn to hunt and fish, or else go hungry.50
When the Whites were “living off the land” in the mountains of Colorado, it was by choice, not necessity. The planned the trip and knew what they were getting into. Knowing that their food supplies were short, they were not compelled to continue with their trip. The consumption of duck, fish, venison, etc., was by deliberate choice, definitely not in response to any unforeseen or unforeseeable emergency. For further study, see Hypocrisy in the Rockies.
Sister White never claimed to have stopped eating meat?
One feels some sympathy for the White Estate as they try to cover up Ellen White’s apparent inability to heed her own counsel and give up eating meat. On their web site they pose their own question and answer:
Did Ellen White eat any meat after her health-reform vision in 1863? What about that 1858 "pork" testimony?
Yet six years after her health reform vision, in a testimony discussing a family backslidden on the health reform, Mrs. White presents herself as an example of how the reform should be observed. She claimed to...
...have not changed my course a particle since I adopted the health reform. I have not taken one step back since the light from heaven first shone upon my pathway. ...I took my stand on health reform from principle.52
Vegetarian food difficult or impossible to obtain?
The White Estate web site makes the excuse that at times, one must either eat meat or starve:
In a day without refrigeration, when obtaining fresh fruit and vegetables depended on where one lived and the time of the year, when meat substitutes were rarely obtainable before the introduction of peanut butter and dry-cereals (mid-1890s), on some occasions one either ate meat or nothing at all.53
If the above statement is true, then Mrs. White should be chastized for admonishing her followers, "meat should not be placed before our children" and their prayers do not reach heaven when they place meat "upon their tables".54 If meat should never be placed before children, and if "on some occasions one either ate meat or nothing at all", then one can only conclude that the prophetess was advocating that children be fed nothing if the only food available was meat!
In reality, in the 19th century, there was plenty of vegetarian food available in the United States, Europe, and Australia, during the entire year. Sure, it took a little planning to make sure one had the proper provisions during the winter, but it could be accomplished by anyone sincerely desiring to be a vegetarian.
To say that meat was the only food item available because of lack of refrigeration is purely nonsense. For example, grain for bread was available year-around. Many items, such as beans, rice, and potatoes can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Cucumbers were preserved thru pickling, and apple sauce and tomatoes were preserved in sealed containers. Grapes, plums and other fruits were preserved by drying them. Meat substitutes may not have been available, but Graham crackers were popular among vegetarians.
The American Vegetarian Society was founded in 1850--long before Adventists stopped eating meat. The Reverend William Metcalfe and Sylvester Graham and many of their followers were total vegetarians long before Adventists. How did they survive? Even earlier, the Sabbath-keeping Ephrata Cloister in Pennsylvania, during the 18th century, survived for nearly a century on a one-meal-a-day vegetarian diet.55 During the middle ages in Europe, there were a number of vegetarian groups:
Many ancient heretics, such as the Encratites, the Ebionites, and the Eustathians, considered abstention from meat-eating an essential part of their asceticism. Medieval heretics, such as the Bogomils and the Cathars, also despised the consumption of meat.55Even earlier, there were ancient Greeks, such as Pythagoras and some of his followers, who abstained from meat. For thousands of years, untold thousands of Buddhists in China and Hindus in India have survived on a vegetarian diet. Many people, from various cultures, throughout the last two thousand years have lived on a vegetarian diet. They did not do this by starving themselves. They did it by planning ahead, storing food for the off-seasons, and by taking advantage of the abundant variety of vegetarian food sources available throughout much of the year.
2. E.G. White, Testimony to Elders Irwin, Prescott, Waggoner, and Jones, February 21, 1899.
3. E.G. White, Ministry of Healing, p. 317.
4. E.G. White, Testimonies, Vol. 2, pp. 371-372.
5. E.G. White, Manuscript 12, 1873, p. 3. Published in Manuscript Releases, vol. 7, p. 346.
6. E.G. White, Manuscript 11, 1873. Released by the Ellen G. White Estate Washington, D.C. April 11, 1985. Published in Manuscript Releases, vol. 14, p. 353.
7. E.G. White, Manuscript Release 852, p. 2.
8. E.G. White, The Signs of the Times, July 18, 1878.
9. E.G. White, Testimonies, Vol. 2, p. 487 (1871).
10. E.G. White, Manuscript Releases Vol. 14, p. 318-319, written December 26, 1878, from Denison, Texas, to "Dear Family at Battle Creek--Willie, Mary, Aunt Mary, Edith, Addie and May, and Brother and Sister Sawyer."
11. E.G. White, Letter 6a, 1880. Published in Manuscript Releases, Vol. 11, pp. 142, 147.
12. E.G. White, Manuscript Releases, vol. 20, p. 302.
13. E.G. White, Review & Herald, June 17, 1880 para. 19.
14. E.G. White, Letter 16, 1882, dated May 31, 1882, from Healdsburg, California. Also found in MR852 - Manuscript Release No. 852: The Development of Adventist Thinking on Clean and Unclean Meats (1981), complied by Ronald Graybill.
15. Letter from Fannie Bolton to Mrs. E. C. Slawson, Dec. 30, 1914, as quoted in The Fannie Bolton Story, pp. 107-109 and published on www.TruthorFables.com. Fannie Bolton wrote: "I left to go with Sr. White on the very day when my brother was to be married. At the depot Sr. White was not with her party, so Eld. Starr hunted around till he found her behind a screen in the restaurant very gratified in eating big white raw oysters with vinegar, pepper and salt. I was overwhelmed by this inconsistency and dumb with horror. Eld. Starr hurried me out and made all sort of excuses and justifications of Sr. White's action; yet I kept thinking in my heart, 'What does this mean? What has God said? How does she dare eat these abominations?' On the cars out to California, W. C. White came into the train with a great thick piece of bloody beefsteak spread out on a brown paper and he bore it through the tourist car on his own two hands. Sarah McEnterfer who is now with Sr. White as her attendant, cooked it on a small oil stove and everyone ate of it except myself and Marian Davis who I found out afterwards was more the author of the books purported to be Sr. White's than she was herself. I was with Mrs. White for seven and a half years like a soul on a rock, because of all kinds of inconsistencies, injustices, and chicaneries. I have seen Sr. White eat meat chicken, fish, fowl, shrimps, rich cake, pies, etc. etc. I cannot go into detail but Sr. Daniells told me she herself had cooked meat for Sr. White on the campground. Eld. Horn told me his wife had done the same thing. Sr. Rousseau told me that she too had done so. Dear Sister, Sr. White has written that when we do not live up to the testimonies we retract them. She has vitiated (made lifeless) her own claims..."
16. E.G. White, Testimonies Vol. 4, p. 435.
17. Ronald Numbers, Prophetess of Health, p. 171.
18. J.H. Kellogg letter to Ballenger, Jan. 9, 1936.
19. Numbers, p. 172.
21. James White, A Solemn Appeal, "Evils and Remedy".
22. Dr. Charles Stewart letter to Ellen G. White, May 8, 1907.
23. E.G. White, Spalding and Magan, p. 38.
24. E.G. White, Manuscript Releases, vol. 14, p. 330; Letter 128, 1896.
25. E.G. White, Letter 5, 1869, Manuscript Releases Vol. 14, p. 312.
26. E.G. White, Testimonies, Vol. 2, p. 487.
27. E.G. White, Testimonies, Vol. 3, p. 21.
28. E.G. White, Manuscript Releases, vol. 14, p. 322.
29. E.G. White, Counsels on Diet and Foods p. 488.
30. E.G. White, Counsels on Diets and Foods, p. 353.
31. E.G. White, Letter 45, 1903, Counsels on Diets and Foods, p. 350.
32. E.S. Ballenger, Gathering Call, June 1944, p. 28.
33. A.G. Danniels, Minutes of the 1919 Bible and History Teachers Conference, August 1, 1919. (http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/1919bc/0801-1919bc.htm)
34. E.G. White, Review & Herald, Oct. 8, 1867; Counsels on Diets and Foods, p. 481.
35. E.G. White, Selected Messages, Book 2, p. 305.
36. E.G. White, Counsels on Diet and Foods, p. 468.
37. E.G. White, Testimonies, vol. 6, p. 378.
38. Jesus in Matthew 23:4.
39. Didache, 11:10.
40. E.G. White, Spalding and Magan, p. 211.
41. E.G. White, Testimonies, Vol. 2, p. 352.
42. E.G. White, Testimonies, Vol. 2, p. 362, 1870.
43. E.G. White, Testimonies, Vol. 9, p. 153.
44. Roger Coon, ELLEN WHITE AND VEGETARIANISM Did She Practice What She Preached?, (Pacific Press, 1986), p. 5.
45. G. B. Starr letter to W. C. White, August 20, 1933, as quoted in The Fannie Bolton Story, p. 1.
46. W. C. White letter to G. B. Starr, Aug. 24, 1933, as quoted in The Fannie Bolton Story, p. 119.
47. Editorial comment made by the White Estate (unnamed author) found in Manuscript Release No. 852: The Development of Adventist Thinking on Clean and Unclean Meats, p. 2.
48. Ellen G. White, Letter 25, 1888, p. 4. (To Bro. Haskell and Bro. and Sr. Ings, February 13, 1888).
49. Coon, p. 12.
51. Ellen White Estate (unnamed author), "Questions and Answers About Ellen G. White", http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/faq-egw.html#faq-section-a7 (as of Dec. 10, 2008).
52. Ellen G. White, Testimonies, Vol 2, pp. 371–372.
53. Ellen White Estate (unnamed author), "Questions and Answers About Ellen G. White", http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/faq-egw.html#faq-section-a7 (as of Dec. 10, 2008).
54. E.G. White, Testimonies, Vol. 2, p. 352, p. 362, 1870.
55. Wikipedia, "Ephrata Cloister", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ephrata_Cloister, as of Dec. 10, 2008.
56. Wikipedia, "History of Vegetarianism", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_vegetarianism, as of Dec. 10, 2008.
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